**Disclaimer** [Still testing, and Tuning but the new AMD RDNA Architecture is new and not only is AMD still optimizing drivers, the mining Developers who DO NOT get GPU's sent to them, are still working on optimizations. Please be patient with me as I continue to test and allow sufficient time for new miners to be developed.] Same as before, I am sharing my performance numbers with the Crypto Mining community, so we can collaborate together. The RX 5000 series GPUs, unfortunately, don't have the ability to mine every Algorithm available. Mining Devs are still working on it still, but you find what I tested so far below. I did test the SoftPowerPlayTables, MorePowerTool and force flashing a different Vbios on the GPU but to no avail. The card either won't boot or if it does it looks the core clock to 300 Mhz. These GPU's were meant to compete against the GTX 1660 TI and 1660 Super, but due to price war with Nvidia, AMD released a VBIOS to allow the RX 5600 XT compete with the RTX 2060 (KO). I will test any updates, and when I get time, I will update my findings below. I did a live stream recently, which you can find below, but it was lengthy. I speak on the recent AMD launch of this GPU, what I tried, the mining performance, power draw, and whether you should consider this GPU for cryptocurrency mining. So if you got time, please feel free to check it out, otherwise, when I get time from my busy life, I will try to get a summary video together for you guys. Carter from BitsBeTrippin should be doing his own independent testing in the future, and I always recommend checking more than one review for your research. Take care! Sapphire Pulse RX 5600 XT | AMD Adrenalin 2020 Edition 20.1.3
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Bitcoin Mining Hash Rate Plummets To 35 EH/s, Increasing Centralization Of Bitcoin Mining
https://preview.redd.it/7qe13wsg3yz11.jpg?width=600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cdb3cb372c118e1bde3b75332739ab61ca868e21 http://genesisblocknews.com/bitcoin-mining-hash-rate-plummets-to-35-eh-s-increasing-centralization-of-bitcoin-mining/ The Bitcoin mining hash rate had been exponentially increasing from 2009 through August 2018, from MH/s, to GH/s, to TH/s, to PH/s, and now EH/s. The all-time record high for Bitcoin’s mining hash rate was 62 EH/s on 26 August 2018. After that point the trend broke, and Bitcoin’s mining hash rate plateaued. This was due to a combination of two factors. First, the Bitcoin bear market brought Bitcoin’s price down from USD 20,000 to about USD 6,500, making mining much less profitable. Second, Bitcoin’s mining difficulty had been rapidly rising despite the bear market, as all the new hash power came online. The end result was there was no more room to profitably add hashing power to the Bitcoin network. It was thought that Bitcoin’s support level was solidly at USD 5,800, but that paradigm broke when Bitcoin Cash forked, the Securities and Exchange Commission began to launch catastrophic civil penalties against initial coin offerings (ICOs), and the launch of physical Bitcoin futures on Bakkt was delayed. This trifecta of extremely bad news within 1 week has brought Bitcoin’s price down to USD 4,400. This unexpected crash in Bitcoin’s price has been destructive for the mining industry. Many mining farms were right at the break even point, or perhaps even losing some money, but expecting Bitcoin to go up in the near future so they kept mining. Now Bitcoin’s hash rate has plummeted to 35 EH/s, implicitly indicating about 25 EH/s of Bitcoin mining rigs have been taken offline since they are no longer profitable due to electricity costs. This represents billions of USD of Bitcoin mining equipment going to complete waste, since Bitcoin mining rigs have no real use besides mining Bitcoin. The events unfolding in the Bitcoin mining space could spell doom for mining rig manufacturers. Now the market for rigs is completely over-saturated, and any demand for rigs has probably dried up. Mining rig manufacturers could perhaps rectify this by rapidly developing cutting-edge technology, like what Bitmain did when they recently released 7 nm rigs. Speaking of Bitmain, no matter how good their technology is, unless Bitcoin’s price rises soon they are going to experience their lowest sales numbers in history. There is a chance this will throttle their attempt at an initial public offering (IPO) on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, and if that IPO falls apart that will send more shockwaves through the crypto space. On a final note, Bitcoin mining supersites that cost hundreds of millions of USD have been popping up across the globe recently, and these have been forcing personal miners out of business, since the supersites are far more cost effective per unit of hash rate. The crash in Bitcoin’s mining hash rate we are seeing right now could very possibly be individual miners collectively shutting down their rigs, leaving just the supersites. This could drastically increase the centralization of the Bitcoin mining network, and therefore increase the centralization of Bitcoin itself. GenesisBlockNews believes it is a dangerous trend for Bitcoin’s hash rate to increasingly be in the control of a select few corporations.
Note: New Reddit look may not highlight links. See old look here. A copy is hosted on GitHub for better reading experience. Check it out, contains photo of the month! Also on Medium
dcrd: Significant optimization in signature hash calculation, bloom filters support was removed, 2x faster startup thanks to in-memory full block index, multipeer work advancing, stronger protection against majority hashpower attacks. Additionally, code refactoring and cleanup, code and test infrastructure improvements. In dcrd and dcrwallet developers have been experimenting with new modular dependency and versioning schemes using vgo. @orthomind is seeking feedback for his work on reproducible builds. Decrediton: 1.2.1 bugfix release, work on SPV has started, chart additions are in progress. Further simplification of the staking process is in the pipeline (slack). Politeia: new command line tool to interact with Politeia API, general development is ongoing. Help with testing will soon be welcome: this issue sets out a test plan, join #politeia to follow progress and participate in testing. dcrdata: work ongoing on improved design, adding more charts and improving Insight API support. Android: design work advancing. Decred's own DNS seeder (dcrseeder) was released. It is written in Go and it properly supports service bit filtering, which will allow SPV nodes to find full nodes that support compact filters. Ticket splitting service by @matheusd entered beta and demonstrated an 11-way split on mainnet. Help with testing is much appreciated, please join #ticket_splitting to participate in splits, but check this doc to learn about the risks. Reddit discussion here. Trezor support is expected to land in their next firmware update. Decred is now supported by Riemann, a toolbox from James Prestwich to construct transactions for many UTXO-based chains from human-readable strings. Atomic swap with Ethereum on testnet was demonstrated at Blockspot Conference LATAM. Two new faces were added to contributors page. Dev activity stats for May: 238 active PRs, 195 master commits, 32,831 added and 22,280 deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 4-10 developers per repository. (chart)
Hashrate: rapid growth from ~4,000 TH/s at the beginning of the month to ~15,000 at the end with new all time high of 17,949. Interesting dynamic in hashrate distribution across mining pools: coinmine.pl share went down from 55% to 25% while F2Pool up from 2% to 44%. [Note: as of June 6, the hashrate continues to rise and has already passed 22,000 TH/s] Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 91.3 DCR (+0.8), stake participation is 46.9% (+0.8%) with 3.68 million DCR locked (+0.15). Min price was 85.56. On May 11 ticket price surged to 96.99, staying elevated for longer than usual after such a pump. Locked DCR peaked at 47.17%. jet_user on reddit suggested that the DCR for these tickets likely came from a miner with significant hashrate. Nodes: there are 226 public listening and 405 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 45% on v1.2.0 (up from 24% last month), 39% on v1.1.2, 15% on v1.1.0 and 1% running outdaded versions.
Obelisk team posted an update. Current hashrate estimate of DCR1 is 1200 GH/s at 500 W and may still change. The chips came back at 40% the speed of the simulated results, it is still unknown why. Batch 1 units may get delayed 1-2 weeks past June 30. See discussions on decred and on siacoin. @SiaBillionaire estimated that 7940 DCR1 units were sold in Batches 1-5, while Lynmar13 shared his projections of DCR1 profitability (reddit). A new Chinese miner for pre-order was noticed by our Telegram group. Woodpecker WB2 specs 1.5 TH/s at 1200 W, costs 15,000 CNY (~2,340 USD) and the initial 150 units are expected to ship on Aug 15. (pow8.com – translated) Another new miner is iBelink DSM6T: 6 TH/s at 2100 W costing $6,300 (ibelink.co). Shipping starts from June 5. Some concerns and links were posted in these twothreads.
A new mining pool is available now: altpool.net. It uses PPLNS model and takes 1% fee. Another infrastructure addition is tokensmart.io, a newly audited stake pool with 0.8% fee. There are a total of 14 stake pools now. Exchange integrations:
Upbit added DCKRW and DCUSDT pairs. A user reported that DCR deposits and withdrawals are now available.
CoinEx announced the launch of DCBTC and DCBCH pairs.
Bleutrade added DCUSDT pair. Note their reply to our tweet. It was the first exchange to list Decred minutes after launch.
Brazilian exchange OmniTradeadded DCBRL fiat pair following a poll. Worth noting that it is one of the first to integrate Trezor sign-in.
There are reports that DCR was added to Abucoins and Tor Exchange but we don't know much about them.
OpenBazaar released an update that allows one to trade cryptocurrencies, including DCR. @i2Rav from i2trading is now offering two sided OTC market liquidity on DCUSD in #trading channel. Paytomat, payments solution for point of sale and e-commerce, integrated Decred. (missed in April issue) CoinPayments, a payment processor supporting Decred, developed an integration with @Shopify that allows connected merchants to accept cryptocurrencies in exchange for goods.
michae2xl: Voto Legal: CEO Thiago Rondon of Appcívico, has already been contacted by 800 politicians and negotiations have started with four pre-candidates for the presidency (slack, source tweet)
Blockfolio rolled out Signal Beta with Decred in the list. Users who own or watch a coin will automatically receive updates pushed by project teams. Nice to see this Journal made it to the screenshot! Placeholder Ventures announced that Decred is their first public investment. Their Investment Thesis is a clear and well researched overview of Decred. Among other great points it noted the less obvious benefit of not doing an ICO:
By choosing not to pre-sell coins to speculators, the financial rewards from Decred’s growth most favor those who work for the network.
One project that stands out at #Consensus2018 is @decredproject. Not annoying. Real tech. Humble team. #BUIDL is strong with them. (@PallerJohn)
Token Summit in New York, USA. @cburniske and @jmonegro from Placeholder talked "Governance and Cryptoeconomics" and spoke highly of Decred. (twitter coverage: 12, video, video (from 32 min)) Campus Party in Bahia, Brazil. João Ferreira aka @girino and Gabriel @Rhama were introducing Decred, talking about governance and teaching to perform atomic swaps. (photos) Decred was introduced to the delegates from Shanghai's Caohejing Hi-Tech Park, organized by @ybfventures. Second Decred meetup in Hangzhou, China. (photos) Madison Blockchain in Madison, USA. "Lots of in-depth questions. The Q&A lasted longer than the presentation!". (photo) Blockspot Conference Latam in Sao Paulo, Brazil. (photos: 1, 2) Upcoming events:
The Long-Term Bullish Case for Decred by Ben Davidow (medium.com)
Hardware Companies Are Launching Dedicated ASIC Miners for Decred (btcmanager.com)
Iterative Capital partner Chris Dannen and journalist Ben Schiller speak with Marco and Jonathan from Decred at Consensus 2018 (soundcloud)
Decred Review: What is DCR, the Decred Community & Possible Challenges by BitBoy Crypto (youtube)
Decred Founder: Bitcoin Paved Way, Phase 2 Will Shock You! (Marco Peereboom) by Pure Blockchain Wealth (youtube)
Decred & Blocknet: Revolutionary governance for every community feat. JZ at Consensus 2018 (youtube)
Decred coin - Will it be better than Bitcoin? by Bitassist (youtube)
Community stats: Twitter 39,118 (+742), Reddit 8,167 (+277), Slack 5,658 (+160). Difference is between May 5 and May 31. Reddit highlights: transparent up/down voting on Politeia, combining LN and atomic swaps, minimum viable superorganism, the controversial debate on Decred contractor model (people wondered about true motives behind the thread), tx size and fees discussion, hard moderation case, impact of ASICs on price, another "Why Decred?" thread with another excellent pitch by solar, fee analysis showing how ticket price algorithm change was controversial with ~100x cut in miner profits, impact of ticket splitting on ticket price, recommendations on promoting Decred, security against double spends and custom voting policies. @R3VoLuT1OneR posted a preview of a proposal from his company for Decred to offer scholarships for students. dcrtrader gained a couple of new moderators, weekly automatic threads were reconfigured to monthly and empty threads were removed. Currently most trading talk happens on #trading and some leaks to decred. A separate trading sub offers some advantages: unlimited trading talk, broad range of allowed topics, free speech and transparent moderation, in addition to standard reddit threaded discussion, permanent history and search. Forum: potential social attacks on Decred. Slack: the #governance channel created last month has seen many intelligent conversations on topics including: finite attention of decision makers, why stakeholders can make good decisions (opposed to a common narrative than only developers are capable of making good decisions), proposal funding and contractor pre-qualification, Cardano and Dash treasuries, quadratic voting, equality of outcome vs equality of opportunity, and much more. One particularly important issue being discussed is the growing number of posts arguing that on-chain governance and coin voting is bad. Just a few examples from Twitter: Decred is solving an imagined problem (decent response by @jm_buirski), we convince ourselves that we need governance and ticket price algo vote was not controversial, on-chain governance hurts node operators and it is too early for it, it robs node operators of their role, crypto risks being captured by the wealthy, it is a huge threat to the whole public blockchain space, coin holders should not own the blockchain. Some responses were posted here and here on Twitter, as well as this article by Noah Pierau.
The month of May has seen Decred earn some much deserved attention in the markets. DCR started the month around 0.009 BTC and finished around 0.0125 with interim high of 0.0165 on Bittrex. In USD terms it started around $81 and finished around $92, temporarily rising to $118. During a period in which most altcoins suffered, Decred has performed well; rising from rank #45 to #30 on Coinmarketcap. The addition of a much awaited KRW pair on Upbit saw the price briefly double on some exchanges. This pair opens up direct DCR to fiat trading in one of the largest cryptocurrency markets in the world. An update from @i2Rav:
We have begun trading DCR in large volume daily. The interest around DCR has really started to grow in terms of OTC quote requests. More and more customers are asking about trading it.
Like in previous month, Decred scores high by "% down from ATH" indicator being #2 on onchainfx as of June 6.
David Vorick (@taek) published lots of insights into the world of ASIC manufacturing (reddit). Bitmain replied. Bitmain released an ASIC for Equihash (archived), an algorithm thought to be somewhat ASIC-resistant 2 years ago. Threepure PoWcoins were attacked this month, one attempting to be ASIC resistant. This shows the importance of Decred's PoS layer that exerts control over miners and allows Decred to welcome ASIC miners for more PoW security without sacrificing sovereignty to them. Upbit was raided over suspected fraud and put under investigation. Following news reported no illicit activity was found and suggested and raid was premature and damaged trust in local exchanges. Circle, the new owner of Poloniex, announced a USD-backed stablecoin and Bitmain partnership. The plan is to make USDC available as a primary market on Poloniex. More details in the FAQ. Poloniex announced lower trading fees. Bittrex plans to offer USD trading pairs. @sumiflow made good progress on correcting Decred market cap on several sites:
speaking of market cap, I got it corrected on coingecko, cryptocompare, and worldcoinindex onchainfx, livecoinwatch, and cryptoindex.co said they would update it about a month ago but haven't yet I messaged coinlib.io today but haven't got a response yet coinmarketcap refused to correct it until they can verify certain funds have moved from dev wallets which is most likely forever unknowable (slack)
About This Issue
Some source links point to Slack messages. Although Slack hides history older than ~5 days, you can read individual messages if you paste the message link into chat with yourself. Digging the full conversation is hard but possible. The history of all channels bridged to Matrix is saved in Matrix. Therefore it is possible to dig history in Matrix if you know the timestamp of the first message. Slack links encode the timestamp: https://decred.slack.com/archives/C5H9Z63AA/p1525528370000062 => 1525528370 => 2018-05-05 13:52:50. Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research. Your feedback is precious. You can post on GitHub, comment on Reddit or message us in #writers_room channel. Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Richard-Red, snr01 and solar.
Obelisk begins taking refund requests. From the official Discord channel:
from taek in the official discord: "I apologize for the lack of updates on our end. I apologize for missing the shipping deadline, and for shipping hardware that is no longer on track to ROI. Starting today, Obelisk is accepting refund requests. I have cut my salary entirely until we have shipped the units and resolved the situation with refunds. It's no secret that Obelisk does not have enough money to refund all customers. We are not usre how many refund requests we will get, however we are quite confident it will be beyond our financial means to provide refunds to everyone who requests. We will figure out how to provide refunds after we know the total number of refunds that must be issued and after we know how much money remains after all units have been built. I currently believe that we will be shipping all batch 1 units by the end of August. We still have not resolved all issues , therefore we cannot give concerete dates. The Siacoin miners are mining and have baseline hashrates. These hashrates are currently below the target of 800 GH/s, however we currently still believe that with optimzations we might be able to reach the target of 800GH/s. We will have more updates in the following days. We have not started hashing the Decred miners yet, however once we have the Sia miners working there is very little code remaining to bring the Decred units online. I am sorry that things have gotten to the point where many people feel that trust has been violated. We will do what we can to make this right. To submit your refund request, please send an email to [email protected] with the subject "Obelisk refund request for order number O-XXXXXXXX". Please include a bitcoin address or bank info for us sending a refund. Refunds sent by bitcoin will have bitcoin transaction fees subtracted. Refunds sent by wire transfer will have wire transfer fees subtracted. The reality of the situation is that wire transfer fees may make up a substantial percentage of the money that Obelisk is able to refund, to maximize your total money received a Bitcoin address is strongly recommended. Refund requests need to be made prior to us shipping you your unit. If we do not receive a refund request for your order number prior to shipping your unit, you will not be eligable for a refund. Per practical limitations, we will not be able to process your refund or return money until after we have shipped all outstanding units from all 5 batches. We will not be honoring the 6 week exclusivity guarantee for batch 1. We will be shipping batch 2 as soon as possible. Please factor this into your decision to request a refund.
Christmas and New Year’s is a traditional time for people from all around the globe to sum up their yearly progress. What people have accomplished, what they have faced and learned – you see this all over social media this time of year. At MinerGate we didn’t want to feel left out so here we are: we have counted, collected and analyzed pertinent information about our mining pools’ activities during 2018 and are pleased to share it with you. https://preview.redd.it/8iszwqzo0a721.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=c9ae219e7010a6d0075fe3649008b87d48e3d66c Stable out the gate, 2018 presented us with several surprises. Looking back this year was marked by a number of forks and network upgrades, an emergence of PoS-based projects, and the rises and falls of many coins. Even the Cryptocurrency King, Bitcoin, gave all of us a surprise by the end of the year. Despite all the fluctuations and issues in the blockchain world, the MinerGate team stayed strong and continued to look after its users with software updates and flexible reactions to market changes. Let’s have a look at MinerGate’s stats of the year. There were more than 150,000 blocks found in all supported blockchains. Counting the average block size of each network, that is more than 1.8 Petabytes of information processed through our mining pools. All these numbers were made possible only with your assistance. MinerGate’s average hashrate in 2018 was more than 90 GH/s for all supported cryptocurrencies. Based on the block reward of each blockchain, our users mined almost 13,000,000 various crypto coins. Furthermore, In April MinerGate supported one of the most significant hardforks – the Monero upgrade – and listed both the renewed Monero and one of its forks, Monero Original. In all, MinerGate created 4 new mining pools this year: the CryptoNight ASIC pool for merged mining; the Monero Original mining pool, which was replaced by the Monero-Classic pool after the latest upgrade in XMC blockchain; and, of course, the milestone Bitcoin Mining Pool. For the MinerGate team, 2018 has been a challenging, yet successful year. With an average server uptime of 99,9%, we have provided our users with one of the most stable working services on the market. And it was proven by your support: the total amount of downloads of MinerGate’s software reached almost 3,800,000. Moreover, our Support team processed and successfully resolved over 100,000 tickets from our users, including test reports of the new MinerGate xFast Miner.
If Mr. Data from Star Trek were to use his Positronic Brain to mine cryptocurrency, how efficiently could he do it?
"In "The Measure of a Man", a Starfleet judge rules that Data is not Starfleet property. The episode establishes that Data has a storage capacity of 800 quadrillion bits, (88.81784197 PiB) and a total linear computational speed of 60 trillion operations per second. Info taken from KnC´s newsletter Titan Chip Specs Each Titan will have four of our groundbreaking chips installed on delivery to make sure they'll output the guaranteed minimum performance we have specified (300 MH/s). We're delighted to release these eye-catching specifications on our new Titan scrypt miner:
4 chips with 2284 cores each — truly record-breaking numbers in this space.
18272 threads per chip.
300 MB of onboard memory.
If you do the math you'll find that each Titan miner has a whopping 9136 cores running 73088 threads in total. found information on the web that mining bitcoin requires 3385 integer operations per bitcoin hash But for Scrypt hash it seems to be a lot lot looot more. So to make it simple lets say it takes 138072 (128K) operations per Hash, could be more, could be less. (but way more than a Bitcoin Hash, 40 times more) Would equal ~434.555.884 Hashes/second, 434.5MHs Scrypting, (Litecoin) and that is with a Positronic brain which is in no way optimized for scrypt-mining, But it´ll do just fine But im not sure you will ever reach ROI haha For Bitcoin , assuming "60 Trillion operations" could be integer operations aswell, would be able to calculate 17.725.258.493.35 Hashes/s 17.725GHs SHA-256. . . . Summarizing. Mr data´s Positronic brain, that has a capacity of 60 Trillion Operations per second would be able to
Mine LiteCoins at 434.5MHs
Mine BitCoins at 17.725GHs
Bear in mind that 1. Positronic brains does NOT exist in todays wonderful world but in the world of Star Trek, OK?! 2. Mr Data´s Positronic brain was designed for other purposes than mining cryptocurrency ! 3. The calculation made for Litecoin Mining is rather fictive (made up) since there were no info about how many operations that is needed to do 1 Hash for Litecoin as far as i have searched. 4. ROI is NOT going to be reached until sometime after year 2336 when Mr Data is born" source: http://forum.kncminer.com/forum/off-topic/humo34636-data-s-gh-sec
Authored by Valentin Schmid via The Epoch Times, While the price of bitcoin drops, miners get more creative... and some flourish. The bitcoin price is crashing; naysayers and doomsayers are having a field day. The demise of the dominant cryptocurrency is finally happening — or is it? Bitcoin has been buried hundreds of times, most notably during the brutal 90 percent decline from 2013 to 2015. And yet it has always made a comeback. Where the skeptics are correct: The second bitcoin bubble burst in December of last year and the price is down roughly 80 percent from its high of $20,000. Nobody knows whether and when it will see these lofty heights again. As a result, millions of speculators have been burned, and big institutions haven’t showed up to bridge the gap. This also happened on a smaller scale in 2013 after a similar 100x run-up, and it was necessary.
Time to Catch Up
What most speculators and even some serious proponents of the independent and decentralized monetary system don’t understand: Bitcoin needs these pauses to make improvements in its infrastructure. Exchanges, which could not handle the trading volumes at the height of the frenzy and did not return customer service inquiries, can take a breather and upgrade their systems and hire capable people. The technology itself needs to make progress and this needs time. Projects like the lightning network, a system which delivers instant bitcoin payments at very little cost and at virtually unlimited scale is now only available to expert programmers. A higher valuation is only justified if these improvements reach the mass market. And since we live in a world where everything financial is tightly regulated, for better or worse, this area also needs to catch up, since regulators are chronically behind the curve of technological progress. And of course, there is bitcoin mining. The vital infrastructure behind securing the bitcoin network and processing its transactions has been concentrated in too few hands and in too few places, most notably China, which still hosts about 70 percent of the mining capacity.
The Case For Mining
Critics have always complained that bitcoin mining consumes “too much” electricity, right now about as much as the Czech Republic. In energy terms this is around 65 terawatt hours or 230,000,000 gigajoules, costing $3.3 billion dollars according to estimates by Digiconomist. For the non-physicists among us, this is around as much as consumed by six million energy-guzzling U.S. households per year. All those estimates are imprecise because the aggregate cannot know how much energy each of the different bitcoin miners consumes and how much that electricity costs. But they are a reasonable rough estimate. So it’s worth exploring why mining is necessary to begin with and whether the electricity consumption is justified. Anything and everything humans do consumes resources. The question then is always: Is it worth it? And: Who decides? This question then leads to the next question: Is it worth having and using money? Most people would argue yes, because using money instead of barter in fact makes economic transactions faster and cheaper and thus saves resources, natural and human. _Merchants exchange goods with the inhabitants of Tidore, Indonesia, circa 1550. Barter was supplanted by using money because it is more efficient. (Archive/Getty Images)_If we are generously inclined, we will grant bitcoin the status of a type of money or at least currency as it meets the general requirements of being recognizable, divisible, portable, durable, is accepted in exchange for other goods and services, and in this case it is even limited in supply. So having any type of money has a price, whether it’s gold, dollar bills, or numbers on the screen of your online banking system. In the case of bitcoin, it’s the electricity and the capital for the computing equipment, as well as the human resources to run these operations. If we think having money in general is a good idea and some people value the decentralized and independent nature of bitcoin then it would be worth paying for verifying transactions on the bitcoin network as well as keeping the network secure and sound: Up until the point where the resources consumed would outweigh the efficiency benefits. Just like most people don’t think it’s a bad idea to use credit cards and banks, which consume electricity too. However, bitcoin is a newcomer and this is why it’s being scrutinized even more so than the old established players.
Different Money, Different Costs
How many people know how much electricity, human lives, and other resources gold mining consumes or has consumed in the course of history? What about the banking system? Branches, servers, air-conditioning, staff? What about printing dollar notes and driving them around in armored trucks? What about the social effects of monetary mismanagement of bank and government money like inflation as well as credit deflations? Gold gets a pass here. Most people haven’t asked that question, which is why it’s worth pointing out the only comprehensive study done on the topic in 2014. In “An Order of Magnitude” the engineer Hass McCook analyzes the different money systems and reaches mind-boggling conclusions. The study is a bit dated and of course the aggregations are also very rough estimates, but the ball park numbers are reasonable and the methodology sound. In fact, according to the study, bitcoin is the most economic of all the different forms of money. Gold mining in 2014 used 475 million GJ, compared to bitcoin’s 230 million in 2018. The banking system in 2014 used 2.3 billion gigajoules. Over 100 people per year die trying to mine gold. But mining costs more than electricity. It consumes around 300,000 liters of water per kilogram of gold mined as well as 150 kilogram (330 pounds) of cyanide and 1500 tons of waste and rubble. The international banking system has been used in all kinds of fraudulent activity throughout history: terrorist financing, money laundering, and every other criminal activity under the sun at a cost of trillions of dollars and at an order of magnitude higher than the same transactions done with cryptocurrency and bitcoin. And of course, while gold has a relatively stable value over time, our bank and government issued money lost about 90 percent of its purchasing power over the last century, because it can be created out of thin air. This leads to inflation and a waste of physical and human resources because it distorts the process of capital allocation. _The dollar has lost more than 90 percent of its value since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. (Source: St. Louis Fed)_This is on top of the hundreds of thousands of bank branches, millions of ATMs and employees which all consume electricity and other resources, 10 times as much electricity alone as the bitcoin network. According to monetary philosopher Saifedean Ammous, author of “The Bitcoin Standard,” the social benefit of hard money, i.e. money that can’t be printed by government decree, cannot even be fathomed; conversely, the true costs of easy money—created by government fiat and bank credit—are difficult to calculate. According to Ammous, bitcoin is the hardest money around, even harder than gold because its total supply is capped, whereas the gold supply keeps increasing at about 1-2 percent every year. “Look at the era of the classical gold standard, from 1871, the end of the Franco–Prussian War, until the beginning of World War I. There’s a reason why this is known as the Golden Era, the Gilded Age, and La Belle Epoque. It was a time of unrivaled human flourishing all over the world. Economic growth was everywhere. Technology was being spread all over the world. Peace and prosperity were increasing everywhere around the world. Technological innovations were advancing. “I think this is no coincidence. What the gold standard allowed people to do is to have a store of value that would maintain its value in the future. And that gave people a low time preference, that gave people the incentive to think of the long term, and that made people want to invest in things that would pay off over the long term … bitcoin is far closer to gold. It is a digital equivalent of gold,” he said in an interview with The Epoch Times. Of course, contrary to the gold standard that Ammous talks about, bitcoin doesn’t have a track record of being sound money in practice. In theory it meets all the criteria, but in the real world it hasn’t been adopted widely and has been so volatile as to be unusable as a reliable store of value or as the underlying currency of a productive lending market. The proponents argue that over time, these problems will be solved the same way gold spread itself throughout the monetary sphere replacing copper and seashells, but even Ammous concedes the process may take decades and the outcome is far from certain. Gold is the safe bet for sound money, bitcoin has potential. There is another measure where bitcoin loses out, according to a recent study by researchers from the Oak Ridge Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the amount of energy expended per dollar for different monetary instruments. One dollar worth of bitcoin costs 17 megajoules to mine versus five for gold and seven for platinum. But the study omits the use of cyanide, water, and other physical resources in mining physical metals. In general, the comparisons in dollar terms go against bitcoin because it is worth relatively less, only $73 billion in total at the time of writing. An issue that could be easily fixed at a higher price, but a higher price is only justified if the infrastructure improves, adoption increases, volatility declines, and the network proves its resilience to attacks over time. In the meantime, market participants still value the fact they can own a currency independent of the government, completely digital, easily fungible, and limited in supply, and relatively decentralized. And the market as a whole is willing to pay a premium for these factors reflected in the higher per dollar prices for mining bitcoin.
The Creativity of Bitcoin Mining
But where bitcoin mining lacks in scale, it makes up for it in creativity. In theory—and in practice—bitcoin mining can be done anywhere where there is cheap electricity. So bitcoin mining operations can be conducted not where people are (banking) or where government is (fiat cash) or where gold is (gold mining)—it can be done everywhere where there is cheap electricity Some miners are flocking to the heat of the Texan desert where gas is virtually available for free, thanks to another oil revolution. Other miners go to places where there is cheap wind, water, or other renewable energy. This is because they don’t have to build bank branches, printing presses, and government buildings, or need to put up excavators and conveyor belts to dig gold out of the ground. All they need is internet access and a home for the computers that look like a shipping container, each one of which has around 200 specialized bitcoin mining computers in them. “The good thing about bitcoin mining is that it doesn’t matter where on earth a transaction happens, we can verify it in our data center here. The miners are part of the decentralized philosophy of bitcoin, it’s completely independent of your location as well,” said Moritz Jäger, chief technology officer at bitcoin Mining company Northern Bitcoin AG.
But so far, this decentralization hasn’t worked out as well as it sounds in theory. Because Chinese local governments had access to subsidized electricity, it was profitable for officials to cut deals with bitcoin mining companies and supply them with cheap electricity in exchange for jobs and cutbacks. Sometimes the prices were as low as 2 dollar cents to 4 dollar cents per kilowatt hour. This is why the majority of bitcoin mining is still concentrated in China (around 70 percent) where it was the most profitable, but only because the Chinese central planners subsidized the price of electricity. This set up led to the by and large unwanted result that the biggest miner of bitcoin, a company called Bitmain, is also the biggest manufacturer of specialized computing equipment for bitcoin mining. The company reported revenues of $2.8 billion for the first half of 2018. Tourists walk on the dunes near a power plant in Xiangshawan Desert in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, in this file photo. bitcoin miners have enjoyed favorable electricity rates in places like Ordos for a long time. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Centralized mining is a problem because whenever there is one player or a conglomerate of players who control more than 50 percent of the network computing power, they could theoretically crash the network by spending the same bitcoin twice, the so called “double spending problem.“ They don’t have an incentive to do so because it would probably ruin the bitcoin price and their business, but it’s better not to have to rely on one group of people controlling an entire money system. After all, we have that exact same system with central banking and bitcoin was set up as a decentralized alternative. So far, no player or conglomerate ever reached that 51 percent threshold, at least not since bitcoin’s very early days, but many market participants always thought Bitmain’s corner of the market is a bit too close for comfort. This favorable environment for Chinese bitcoin mining has been changing with a crack down on local government electricity largess as well as a crackdown on cryptocurrency. Bitcoin itself and mining bitcoin remain legal in China but cryptocurrency exchanges have been banned since late 2017. But more needs to be done for bitcoin to become independent of the caprice of a centralized oppressive regime and local government bureaucrats.
Northern Bitcoin Case Study
Enter Northern Bitcoin AG. The company isn’t the only one which is exploring mining opportunities with renewable energies in locations other than China. But it is special because of the extraordinary set up it has for its operations, the fact that it is listed on the stock exchange in Germany, and the opportunities for scaling it discovered. The operations of Northern Bitcoin combine the beauties of bitcoin and capitalism in one. Like Texas has a lot of oil and free gas and it makes sense to use the gas rather than burn it, Norway has a lot of water, especially water moving down the mountains due to rainfall and melting snow. And it makes sense to use the power of the movement of the water, channel it through pipes into generators to create very cheap and almost unlimited electricity. Norway generates north of 95 percent of its total electricity from hydropower. A waterfall next to a hydropowerplant near Sandane, Norway, Oct. 25, 2018. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)Capitalism does not distinguish between renewable and fossil. It uses what is the most expedient. In this case, it is clearly water in Norway, and gas in Texas. As a side note on the beauties of real capital and the fact that capital and the environment need not be enemies, the water in one of the hydropowerplants close to the Northern Bitcoin facility is piped through a generator made in 1920 by J.M. Voith AG, a company from Heidenheim Germany. The company was established in 1867 and is still around today. The generator was produced in 1920 and is still producing electricity today.
In the remote regions of Northern Norway, there aren’t that many people or industry who would use the electricity. And rather than transport it over hundreds of miles to the industrial centers of Europe, the industries of the future are moving to Norway to the source of the cheap electricity. Of course, it is not just bitcoin mining, but other data and computing heavy operations like server farms for cloud computing that can be neatly packaged into one of those containers and shipped up north. “The containers are beautiful. They are produced in the middle of Germany where the hardware is enabled and tested. Then we put it on a truck and send it up here. When the truck arrives on the outside we lift it on the container vehicle. Two hours after the container arrives, it’s in the container rack. And 40 hours later we enable the cooling, network, power, other systems, and it’s online,” said Mats Andersson, a spokesman for the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway, where Northern Bitcoin has its operations. Plug and play. A Northern Bitcoin data container inside the Lefdal Mine data center, in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)If the cheap electricity wasn’t enough—around 5 cents per kilowatt hour compared to 17 cents in Germany—Norway also provides the perfect storage for these data containers, which are normally racked up in open air parks above the ground. Also here, the resource allocation is beautiful. Instead of occupying otherwise useful and beautiful parcels of land and nature, the Northern Bitcoin containers and others are stored in the old Lefdal olivine mine. Olivine is a mineral used for steel production and looks green. Very fitting. Hence also the name of the data center: Lefdal Mine. “We take the green mineral out and we take the green IT in,” said Andersson.
Using the old mine as storage for the data center makes the whole process even more resource efficient. Why? So far, we’ve only been talking about bitcoin mining using a lot of energy. But what for? Before you have actually seen the process in action—and it is similar for other computing operations—you cannot imagine how bizarre it is. Most of the electricity is used to prevent the computers from overheating. So it’s not even the processors themselves; it’s the fans which cool the computer that use the most juice. This is where the mine helps, because it’s rather cool 160 meters (525 feet) below sea level; certainly cooler than in the Texas desert. But it gets even better. On top of the air blow-cooling the computer, the Lefdal data center uses a fresh water system to pump through the containers in pipes. The fans can then circulate air over the cool pipes which transfer the heat to the water. One can feel the difference when touching the different pipes. The fresh water closed circle loop then completes the “green” or resource efficiency cycle by transferring its heat to ice cold water from the nearby Fjord. The water is sucked in through a pipe from the Fjord, the heat gets transferred without the water being mixed, and the water flows back to the Fjord, without any impact on the environment. To top it all off, the mine has natural physical security far better than open air data centers and is even protected from an electromagnetic pulse blast because it’s underground.
_The Nordfjord near Måløy, Norway. The Lefdal data center takes the cold water from the fjord and uses it to cool the computer inside the mine. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)_Company Dynamics
Given this superlative set up, Northern Bitcoin wants to ramp up production as fast as possible at the Lefdal mine and other similar places in Norway, which have more mountains where data centers can be housed. At the moment, Northern Bitcoin has 15 containers with 210 mining machines each. The 15 containers produce around 5 bitcoin per day at a total cost of around $2,500 dollars at the end of November 2018 and after the difficulty of solving the math problems went down by ~17 percent. Most of it is for electricity; the rest is for leasing the containers, renting the mine space, buying and writing off the mining computers, personnel, overhead, etc. Even at the current relatively depressed prices of around $4000, that’s a profit of $1500 per bitcoin or $7,500 per day. But the goal is to ramp it up to 280 containers until 2019, producing 100 bitcoin per day. Again, the company is in the sweet spot to do this. As opposed to the beginning of the year when one could not procure a mining computer from Bitmain even if one’s life depended on it, the current bear market has made them cheap and relatively available both new and second had from miners who had to cease operations because they can’t produce at low bitcoin prices. Northern Bitcoin containers inside the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)What about the data shipping containers? They are manufactured by a company called Rittal who is the world market leader. So it helps that the owner of Rittal also owns 30 percent of the Lefdal mine, providing preferential access to the containers. Northern Bitcoin said it has enough capital available for the intermediate goal of ramping up to 50 containers until the end of year but may tap the capital markets again for the next step. The company can also take advantage of the lower German corporate tax rate because revenue is only recorded when the bitcoin are sold in Germany, not when they are mined in Norway. Of course, every small-cap stock—especially bitcoin companies—have their peculiarities and very high risks. As an example, Northern Bitcoin’s financial statements, although public, aren’t audited. The equipment in the Lefdal mine in Norway is real and the operations are controlled by the Lefdal personnel, but one has to rely on exclusive information from the company for financials and cost figures, so buyer beware.
Northern Bitcoin wants to have 280 containers, representing around 5 percent of the network’s computing power. But the Lefdal mine alone has a capacity to power and cool 1,500 containers in a 200 megawatt facility, once it is fully built out. “Here you have all the space, power, and cooling that you need. … Here you can grow,” said Lefdal’s Andersson. A mine shaft in the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. The whole mine will have a capacity for 1500 containers once fully built out. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)The Norwegian government was behind an initiative to bring computing power to Norway and make it one of the prime destinations for data centers at the beginning of this decade. To that effect, the local governments own part of the utility companies which operate the power plants and own part of the Lefdal Mine and other locations. But even without notable subsidies (i.e. cash payments to companies), market players were able to figure it out, for everybody’s benefit. The utilities win because they can sell their cheap electricity close to home. The computing companies like IBM and Northern Bitcoin win because they can get cheap electricity, storage, and security. Data center operators like Lefdal win because they can charge rent for otherwise unused and unneeded space. However, in a recent about face, the central government in Oslo has decided to remove cryptocurrency miners from the list of companies which pay a preferential tax rate on electricity consumption. Normally, energy intensive companies, including data centers, pay a preferential tax on electricity consumed of 0.48 øre ($0.00056 ). According to a report by Norwegian media Aftenposten, this tax will rise to 16.58 øre ($0.019) in 2019 for cryptocurrency miners exclusively. The argument by left wing politician Lars Haltbrekken who sponsored the initiative: “Norway cannot continue to provide huge tax incentives for the most dirty form of cryptocurrency output […] [bitcoin] requires a lot of energy and generates large greenhouse gas emissions globally.” Since Norway generates its electricity using hydro, precisely the opposite is true: No greenhouse gas emissions, or any emissions for that matter would be produced, if all cryptomining was done in Norway. As opposed to China, where mining is done with coal and with emissions. But not only in Norway is the share of renewable and emission free energy high. According to research by Coinshares, Bitcoin’s consumes about 77.6 percent of its energy in the form of renewables globally. However self-defeating the arguments against bitcoin mining in Norway, the political initiative is moving forward. What it means for Northern Bitcoin is not clear, as they house their containers in Lefdal’s mixed data center, which also has other clients, like IBM. “It’s not really decided yet; there are still big efforts from IT sectors and parties who are trying to change it. If the decision is taken it might apply for pure crypto sites rather than mixed data centers, like ours,” said Lefdal’s Andersson. Even in the worst-case scenario, it would mean an increase from ~5 cents to ~6.9 cents per kilowatt hour, or 30 percent more paid on the electricity by Northern Bitcoin, which at ~$3250 would still rank it among the most competitive producers in the world. Coinshares estimates the average production price at $6,800 per Bitcoin at $0,05 per kilowatt hour of electricity and an 18-months depreciation schedule, but concedes that a profitable miner could “[depreciate] mining gear over 24-30 months, or [pay] less for mining gear than our estimates.” Jäger says Northern Bitcoin depreciates the equipment over three years and has obtained very favorable prices from Bitmain, making its production much more competitive than the average despite the same cost of electricity. In addition, the natural cooling in the mine also reduces electricity costs overall.
Cheap Producer Advantage
At the moment, however, the tax could be the least of any miners worry, as the bitcoin price is in free-fall. But what happens when the price crashes further? Suffice it to say that there was bitcoin mining when the dollar price was less than 1 cent and there will be bitcoin mining at lower prices thanks to the design of the network. Mao Shixing, the founder of mining pool F2pool estimated 600,000 miners have shut down since the November crash in price, according to a report by Coindesk. As it should be in a competitive system, the most energy intensive and obsolete machines are shut down first. As with every other commodity, when the price drops, some miners will leave the market, leaving space for cheaper competitors to capture a bigger share. But with bitcoin this is a bit simpler than with copper or gold for example. When a big copper player goes bankrupt, its competitors have to ramp up production and increase cost to increase their market share. With bitcoin, if 3,000 computers get taken off the total mining pool, they won’t be able to mine the approximately 5 bitcoin any longer. However, because the difficulty of solving the computationally intensive cryptographic tasks of bitcoin decreases automatically when there are fewer computers engaged in the task, the other players just have to leave their machines running at the same rate for the same cost and they will split the 5 bitcoin among them. “The moment the price goes down, our production price will go down as well,” said Jäger, a process that already happened from November to December when the difficulty decreased twice in November and the beginning of December. This naturally favors players like Northern Bitcoin, which are producing at the lower end of the cost spectrum. They will be the ones who shut down last. And this is a good thing. The more companies like Northern Bitcoin, and countries like Norway—even with the extra tax—the more decentralized the bitcoin system. The more computers there are in different hands mining bitcoin, the more secure the system becomes, because it will be ever more difficult for one player to reach the 50 percent threshold to crash the system.It is this decentralized philosophy which has kept the bitcoin system running for 10 years. Whether at $1 or $20,000.
Metrics other than price: Hash Rate, Nodes, Truffle DLs
Here at Ethtrader we like to wax poetic about the price of ETH/USD and ETH/BTC...which is awesome! However there are some other metrics that I think are also important to look at, which can be seen as indicators of market performance and acceptance as well. Hash Rate: https://etherscan.io/chart/hashrate The average daily hash rate is 11119 GH/s. This means that there are a lot of miners participating to make the network safer. This is significantly up from a few months ago. Node Count: 8695 https://www.ethernodes.org/network/1 That's more than Bitcoin, folks! https://bitnodes.21.co/ (6167) That means it has (among other things) more developers and wide spread use and decentralization. "CHYNA" Truffle downloads: Up from around 800 per month to nearly 9000 DLs Feb 2016 to 2017. https://twitter.com/amandagutterman/status/834495543753707520 That means a lot of new developers are joining the Ethereum space. If you look at the number of downloads, you can see it clearly goes vertical in the last few months. So long story short, the price discussion is awesome, but also check out a few metrics, namely the ones listed above, to see a greater picture of how well the Ethereum Ecosystem is evolving. That's my 2 Finney. Cheers!
The NuVoo Emerald Mining contract has a power rating of 44781.21 GH/s and a lifetime duration. There are energy Daily Fee 0.00021$ per 1 GH/s. The specific duration of a contract of lifetime duration is variable and determined by three factors: the difficulty of the exploitation, Bitcoin exchange rates against USD and maintenance costs (which includes all the costs of electricity, cooling, development and maintenance). Once it is no longer profitable to mine, the contract will be terminated. This mining contract is provided by NuVoo Mining, a company that focuses on providing users with the tools for them to take the first steps into the crypto/mining world. NuVoo offers a Cloud Mining, Dedicated Miner and Colocation Miner service. Nuvoo also offers solutions for experts and large-scale entrepreneurs from one unit farm to multiple tier-1 home dedicated mining farm. Disclosure: Mining contract metrics are calculated based on a network hash rate of 27,483,320,229 GH/s and using a BTC - USD exchange rate of 1 BTC = $ 9141.7. These figures vary based on the total network hash rate and on the BTC to USD conversion rate. Block reward is fixed at 12.5 BTC and future block reward reductions are not taken into account. Network hash rate varies over time, this is just an estimation based on current values.
NuVoo Mining This company offers a wide range of plans which ensures that everyone can get their most preferred plan.
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All plans offer guaranteed hashing power, meaning that your chosen plan will always make you money anyhow. While the starter plan has a minimum deposit requirement of $225, the company has a plan (not listed on the homepage) which can be purchased for $125 only. It is also important to understand that all plans are open-ended. This means that you can mine altcoins with this company for as long as your plan remains profitable. When it stops being profitable, NuVoo Mining will close it. The pre-order date for all plans is March 15, 2018. When you pick any of these plans, you will not pay the cost of electricity as NuVoo has invested in mining farms which are situated in Quebec, Canada. This location is one of the few areas in the world with low cost of electricity. The other reason why you’re paying nothing for the cost of electricity is because this company has heavily invested in cheaper yet natural sources of electricity. There is a strong emphasis on using eco-friendly sources of energy which at least puts their miners ahead of the competition (that is, if you compare NuVoo Miners to other miners who still depend on one source of electricity). Needless to say, the most expensive plan here costs $54,000, and it gives 126500.75 GH/s of hashing power. If you’re not paying electricity fees, then it means your profit potential should be higher than what you would have received from other companies selling the same amount of hashing power. https://youtu.be/e9-SKPvm9h8Е
Большой обзор: восемь самых доходных ASIC-майнеров криптовалюты
ASIC-майнер – специальное устройство, которое позволяют добывать криптовалюту. В отличие от графических карт (GPU), которые многофункциональны и могут пригодиться еще, например, для компьютерных игр, «асики» - однозадачны, они не могут ничего другого, кроме как майнить криптовалюту. Зато делают это максимально эффективно и обычно мгновенно вытесняют GPU из той сети, криптовалюту которой начинают добывать. Coinlife подготовил обзор самых известных ASIC-майнеров с учетом их доходности и окупаемости. ASIC-майнер, в отличие от GPU, обычно рассчитан на добычу всего 1-6 криптовалют, без возможности резко перестроиться на любую другую валюту, что ограничивает майнера в выборе. Но неоспоримым преимуществом майнинга с помощью ASIC-устройств является его сверхэффективность. Мощность одного устройства сравнима с одновременной работой десятков, а то и сотен GPU. Поэтому с началом выпуском ASIC-майнеров для добычи конкретной криптовалюты, хэшрейт в сети резко возрастает и майнинг с помощью других устройств перестает приносить доход их владельцам. Это особенно заметно в сети биткоин. Добыча главной криптовалюты мира давно выполняется только на «асиках». С них-то мы и начнем свой обзор. SHA-256 Antminer S9 Antminer S9 - самый популярный и эффективный на сегодняшний день ASIC-майнер для добычи биткоина. Производитель– Bitmain (Китай). Компания Bitmain известна, как лидер по производству майнеров для биткоина. Ей принадлежит порядка 70% рынка ASIС-майнеров для BTC. В линейке компании насчитывается уже несколько моделей устройств для добычи самой дорогой цифровой валюты. Самый известный и эффективный на сегодняшний день – Antminer S9. Он работает на алгоритме SHA-256, поэтому с его помощью можно добывать Bitcoin и Bitcoin Cash. Читать еще: Cамый успешный хардфорк биткоина, претендующий на место «первого»: обзор криптовалюты Bitcoin Cash Хэшрейт отличается, в зависимости от партии, и варьируется в диапазоне от 11,5 до 14 TH/s. Энергопотребление также отличается в зависимости от значения хэшрейта: от 1127 Вт до 1372 Вт. Майнер работает на чипе BM1387, в одном устройстве насчитывается 189 чипов. Техпроцесс – 16 nm. Цена устройства от производителя составляет 139 тыс. руб. (2 425 долларов) включая блок питания. Доходность в день примерно равна 10,3 долларам, это 0.001136 BTC (здесь и дальше данные указаны по состоянию на 28.02.2018 г., с учетом стоимости электроэнергии 4,5 руб. за кВт/ч). Окупаемость устройства займет порядка 8 месяцев. Ebit E9 Plus Майнер биткоина от еще одного китайского производителя, пытающегося составить конкуренцию Bitmain, Zhejiang Ebang Communication Co., коротко - Ebit. Устройство также работает на алгоритме SHA-256 и используется для добычи Bitcoin и Bitcoin Cash. Хэшрейт Ebit E9+ равен 9 TH/s при энергопотреблении в 1300 Вт. Работает на трех платах с чипом DW1227 (132 шт.). Техпроцесс – 14 nm. Цена в Москве составляет от 120 тыс. руб. (2,2 тыс. долларов). Доходность в день 5,9 доллара, это 0, 000757 BTC. Окупаемость составляет 12-13 месяцев. Скоро ему на смену придет новый майнер Ebit E10, с хэшрейтом в два раза выше, и с меньшим энергопотреблением. Компания анонсировала выход нового устройства в конце 2017 года. Но отгрузки пока не начались. AvalonMiner 741 Еще одно ASIC-устройство для майнинга биткоина и его самого успешного хардфорка. Производитель Canaan Creative CO., Китай. Работает, соответственно, на алгоритме SHA-256. Хэшрейт составляет 7,3 TH/s. Энергопотребление 1150 Вт. Количество чипов A3212 в одном устройстве - 88 шт. Техпроцесс 16 nm. Майнер работает на двух платах. Стоимость AvalonMiner 741 в Москве примерно равна 170 тыс. руб. (почти 3 тыс. долларов). Доходность в день составляет порядка 6,4 доллара – 0,0008 BTC. Окупаемость такого вложения займет 15 месяцев. X11 DM11G Американский ASIC-майнер криптовалюты Dash. Производитель – iBeLink.co (США). Работает на алгоритме X11. Помимо основной валюты может использоваться для добычи Cannabiscoin (CANN) и Monoeci (XMCC). Хэшрейт 11 GH/s. Энергопотребление скромное 810 Вт. Работает на чипе TNB0303-FL28, в одном устройстве 64 шт. Техпроцесс – 28 nm. Стоит отметить, что данный майнер является одним из самых тяжелых. Вес составляет 22 кг. Цена в Москве сейчас составляет порядка 110 тыс. руб. (1,9 тыс. долларов). Доходность в день – 2,5 доллара, это 0.0066 DASH. Окупаемость 2 года. Antminer D3 Более известный майнер Dash от Bitmain. Работает на алгоритме X11 и кроме Dash может добывать Cannabiscoin (CANN) и Monoeci (XMCC). Хэшрейт превышает показатели предыдущего майнера – 19.3 GH/s. Энергопотребление 1200 Вт. В каждом устройстве по 180 чипов X11. На сайте компании продажа приостановлена на неопределенный срок. В Москве D3 можно купить примерно за 90 тыс. руб. Доходность в день порядка 5 долларов, это 0,0123 DASH. Окупаемость вложений займет меньше времени – 10 месяцев. Scrypt Antminer L3+ Известный майнер Litecoin от китайского гиганта Bitmain. Работает на алгоритме Scrypt, поэтому кроме LTC может майнить Dogecoin (DOGE), Verge-Scrypt (XVG), DGB-Scrypt (DGB), GameCredits (GAME) и Einsteinium (EMC2). Хэшрейт майнера достигает 504 MH/s. Энергопотребление невелико – 800 Вт. Имеет чип BM1485, в одном устройстве таких 288 шт. Техпроцесс 16 nm. На официальном сайте продажи открыты. Цена составляет 1500 долларов США (86 тыс. руб.) вместе с блоком питания. Стоимость оборудования в Москве составляет 150 тыс. руб. В день L3+ приносит 9,3 доллара дохода, это 0,051 LTC. Окупаемость – 10 месяцев, если вы купили оборудование в Москве и 6 месяцев, если вам удалось купить по цене производителя. A6 LTCMaster Майнер Litecoin от другого китайского производителя INNOSILICON Technology Ltd. Набор валюты, которую можно добывать с помощью этого устройства, аналогичен предыдущему. Хэшрейт выше в два раза – 1,23 Gh/s. Энергопотребление, соответственно, тоже заметно отличается и составляет 1500 Вт. Цена производителя составляет – 6,3 тыс долларов США. В Москве устройство можно приобрести за 450 тыс. руб. Доходность в день 23 доллара - 0.1227 LTC. Окупаемость майнера составляет 11 месяцев. Blake (2b) Antminer A3 Новый майнер от уже упоминаемого производителя Bitmain. Выпущен был только в январе 2018 года. Создан для майнинга Siacoin. Bitmain сработал на опережение и создал майнер раньше, чем компания Obelisk – «дочка» Sia. Многие участники сообщества Sia выступили даже за проведение софт-форка сети, который сделал бы невозможным майнинг Siacoin с помощью Antminer A3. Но от этой идеи отказались и оба производителя пришли к соглашению о совместной работе по развитию сообщества SIA. Читать еще: Siacoin получил из Китая импульс к развитию: обзор криптовалюты Майнер работает на алгоритме Blake (2b). Хэшрейт равен 815 MH/s. Энергопотребление составляет 1275 Вт. Количество чипов BM1720 в одном устройстве – 180 шт. Техпроцесс 16 nm. Цена на сайте производителя указана в долларах – 2,37 тыс., в Москве новое устройство обойдется в 240 тыс. руб. Доходность составляет 37,7 долларов в день, 1,8 тыс. Siacoin. Окупаемость одного устройства по данным на момент публикации составляет всего 2 месяца. Но с учетом роста хэшрейта, ситуация совсем скоро может измениться. В наш обзор ASIC-майнеров вошли самые известные и доходные устройства. Рынок ASIC-майнеров гораздо шире, разнообразнее. Конкуренция велика. На 2018 год запланирован выпуск сразу нескольких новых моделей оборудования для майнинга криптовалют. Ожидается выход на рынок устройств от Samsung, корпорация намерена наладить выпуск чипов для ASIC-майнеров. Добытчики биткоина с нетерпением ждут новинки от Bitmain, которая придет на смену Antminer S9.
Данный материал не является коммерческим справочным ресурсом, поэтому его не следует воспринимать как рекомендацию. Представленная информация не должна интерпретироваться как совет по выбору устройства. Помните, ваши инвестиции в майнинг криптовалюты – зона вашей ответственности. Если вам нужна консультация такого рода, Coinlife настоятельно рекомендует обратиться к квалифицированным специалистам.
Bitcoin value. Current value at ~1000 USD. Profits above calculated at 900 USD Bitcoin difficulty: 1,180,923,195 Bitcoins per Block (BTC/block): 25 Conversion rate (USD/BTC): 900 Hash rate: 100 GH/s Electricity rate (USD/kWh): 0.09 Power consumption (W): 3 Time frame (months): 3 Cost of mining hardware (USD): 3011.98 Profitability decline per year: 0.61 Difficulty 1,180,923,195.00 Mining Factor 100: 0.04 USD/[email protected]/s Hardware break even: 84 days Net profit first time frame: 279.64 USD Coins per 24h at these conditions: 0.0426 BTC Power cost per 24h: 0.01 USD Revenue per day: 38.33 USD Less power costs: 38.32 USD System efficiency: 33333.33 MH/s/W Mining Factor 100 at the end of the time frame: 0.03 USD/[email protected]/s Average Mining Factor 100: 0.04 USD/[email protected]/s Power cost per time frame: 0.59 USD Revenue per time frame: 3292.21 USD Less power costs: 3291.62 USD Hardware Cost Breakdown: 100GH Overclockable Bitcoin Miner Kit 2,800.00 USD https://megabigpower.com/shop/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=70 RASPBERRY PI MODEL B 700Mhz; 512Mb RAM 41.99 USD http://www.amazon.com/RASPBERRY-MODEL-700Mhz-512Mb-RAM/dp/B009SQQF9C/ref=sr_1_1?s=pc&ie=UTF8&qid=1389015864&sr=1-1 Cooler Master Silent Pro Gold 800W 169.99 USD http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16817171057 Whatever amount you want to invest determines your percentage of the profits. Example: Total Investment Cost: 3011.98 USD Investor #1: 75 USD = %2.4 Profit Share, net profit of 6.97 USD after 3 months Investor #2: 500 USD = %16.6 Profit Share, net profit of 46.50 USD after 3 months Investor #3: 906.60 USD = %30.1 Profit Share Investor #4: 1505.99 USD = %50 Profit Share 874.16 USD net profit after 3 months with a $800 investment. Mining pool fee. Typically 3%. P2Pool offers 0% mining pool fee. https://github.com/forrestv/p2pool
Want to get into Bitcoin mining? Don't want to wait until the Second Coming of Christ to get a unit from Butterfly Labs or sell your children to afford one on Fleabay? My loss is your gain. Today, I'd like to offer my Butterfly Labs Bitcoin Miners for sale, I have one 5 gh/s miner and another 30 gh/s miner. I've used them for about a month, and they are essentially in new condition what you see here is what you get. With the difficulty today, these babies should be able to net you about .02 Bitcoin per 24 hours of operation. I'm asking for $1,800 for both units although I'm willing to take a best offer. Cash is preferable. Picture of Max Headroom not included.
Does anyone know of a Github project (or anything) for a stratum miner that's written entirely in Python? I've tried using pyminer with the Stratum Proxy, but that didn't the way I wanted it to. What I'm trying to do is make a "fake" miner where it submits random nonce data to a server to trick it into thinking it's mining, when really it's just creating a random nonce and submitting that work. Nothing malicious, and I know that it's not going to make free bitcoins or something, but just a fun coding project. The problem is that the mining_proxy.py checks to make sure the work is valid and doesn't pass anything to the server unless it's valid. The goal is to trick it into thinking that it's getting a hash rate of 800 GH/s or above. Any suggestions would be very helpful! Thanks in advance!
Lets calculate the hash rate at the marginal cost of electricity; 0.10 $/kWatthour 800.00 Bitcoin price 150.00 Bitcoins per hour (using 25 per 10 mins target) 120,000.00 $ Payout per hour 1,200,000,000.00 Watt (price times payout) 0.70 Watts/GH/s (here I used the Neptune 20nm miner) 1,714,285,714 Giga Hash/s (Watt/0.7) This is where I think we will eventually end up should the price stay at this level.
I understand the concept of Bitcoin pretty well, I think. It looks like mining with ASIC miners such as this should be profitable, although $2,800 is far too much for getting started from nothing. Is there any smaller scale version of this that is roughly as efficient? CPUs and GPUs seem to not be worth it at all to mine on any longer. Is mining worth it at all nowadays? If so, which coin is the most efficient to mine? Bitcoin? Litecoin? Enlighten me!
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SOLD Both rigs runs Windows and comes with the installation disc (Dell branded), but I was running a live Debian-based OS from a USB drive that will be included (4gb). It supports litecoin and bitcoin, and even the USB ASIC block erupters. It has remote monitoring support, which is mainly why I used it. Will accept litecoin, bitcoin, Paypal, Dwolla, or Wells Fargo transfers. I would rather not ship outside the USA or part out. If no one is interested here, I will likely just list them on eBay.
If you were to say, buy the 4.5 GH/S BITCOIN MINER from Butterflylabs for 150 dollars, the calculator (http://www.alloscomp.com/bitcoin/calculator) reckons you'd be making 800 dollars a week. This seems like something can't be quite right! What's going on?
tl;dr: either the growth in the hash rate must slow down, the power consumption must go down, or the price of BTC must go up, a lot. And according to https://bitcoinwisdom.com/bitcoin/difficulty, it is showing no signs at all of slowing down, hashrate actually seems to be still growing exponentially, which is good. Using the following conversion factors, constants and assumptions: Code: GH/s per Diff 0.007158388055 Blocks/Period 2016 BTC/Period 50400 Watts per GH/s 1 (assumed constant rest of this year, is it right to assume this?) USD/kWh $0.10 In other words assuming everyone in the network pays $0.10 per kWh and everyone has miners that burn 1 W per GH/s (1 J/GH) then we can calculate the average production cost for each BTC over the last year as follows: Assuming the network growth rate over the next year is about 20% average we get:
Hash Rate Power Energy Cost Cost Date Difficulty TH/s MW MWh $/Period $/BTC
11-Sep-14 33,220,936,877 237,808 238 66,349 $6,634,853 $131.64 23-Sep-14 40,236,446,759 288,028 288 80,360 $8,035,984 $159.44 04-Oct-14 48,733,473,526 348,853 349 97,330 $9,733,002 $193.12 16-Oct-14 59,024,880,009 422,523 423 117,884 $11,788,392 $233.90 28-Oct-14 71,489,598,585 511,750 512 142,778 $14,277,833 $283.29 08-Nov-14 86,586,583,575 619,820 620 172,930 $17,292,988 $343.11 20-Nov-14 104,871,710,060 750,712 751 209,449 $20,944,876 $415.57 02-Dec-14 127,018,241,359 909,246 909 253,680 $25,367,960 $503.33 13-Dec-14 153,841,618,762 1,101,258 1,101 307,251 $30,725,098 $609.62 25-Dec-14 186,329,486,300 1,333,819 1,334 372,135 $37,213,544 $738.36 05-Jan-15 225,678,056,071 1,615,491 1,615 450,722 $45,072,202 $894.29 17-Jan-15 273,336,153,086 1,956,646 1,957 545,904 $54,590,430 $1,083.14 29-Jan-15 331,058,561,407 2,369,846 2,370 661,187 $66,118,694 $1,311.88 09-Feb-15 400,970,635,767 2,870,303 2,870 800,815 $80,081,465 $1,588.92 21-Feb-15 485,646,557,708 3,476,447 3,476 969,929 $96,992,858 $1,924.46 05-Mar-15 588,204,117,648 4,210,593 4,211 1,174,756 $117,475,554 $2,330.86 16-Mar-15 712,419,512,763 5,099,775 5,100 1,422,837 $142,283,732 $2,823.09 28-Mar-15 862,866,387,600 6,176,732 6,177 1,723,308 $172,330,835 $3,419.26 08-Apr-15 1,045,084,236,901 7,481,119 7,481 2,087,232 $208,723,207 $4,141.33 20-Apr-15 1,265,782,371,309 9,060,961 9,061 2,528,008 $252,800,823 $5,015.89 02-May-15 1,533,086,956,002 10,974,431 10,974 3,061,866 $306,186,635 $6,075.13 13-May-15 1,856,840,218,301 13,291,983 13,292 3,708,463 $370,846,321 $7,358.06 25-May-15 2,248,962,841,151 16,098,949 16,099 4,491,607 $449,160,670 $8,911.92 06-Jun-15 2,723,892,885,897 19,498,682 19,499 5,440,132 $544,013,236 $10,793.91 17-Jun-15 3,299,117,405,623 23,616,363 23,616 6,588,965 $658,896,517 $13,073.34 29-Jun-15 3,995,816,323,188 28,603,604 28,604 7,980,405 $798,040,547 $15,834.14 10-Jul-15 4,839,642,281,734 34,644,038 34,644 9,665,686 $966,568,646 $19,177.95 22-Jul-15 5,861,665,181,962 41,960,074 41,960 11,706,861 $1,170,686,065 $23,227.90 03-Aug-15 7,099,516,184,307 50,821,092 50,821 14,179,085 $1,417,908,463 $28,133.10 14-Aug-15 8,598,773,298,472 61,553,356 61,553 17,173,386 $1,717,338,634 $34,074.18 26-Aug-15 10,414,639,578,109 74,552,032 74,552 20,800,017 $2,080,001,680 $41,269.87 07-Sep-15 12,613,975,712,232 90,295,733 90,296 25,192,510 $2,519,250,952 $49,985.14 In other words something has got to give by the end of the year, or actually before December 1 This does not take into account hardware manufacturing cost or other expenses, just strictly electricity costs to produce one btc. I'm sure there are more efficient miners out now that are better than 1 watt gh right? Regardless of above, from now until 2016 block halving it's going to be extremely interesting to see what happens to bitcoin, and i think during this time peroid is when we will know for sure if bitcoin will become mainstream or not...
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